A multitude of species can be grown for decades in pots smaller than 1 litre. Exactly what species, though, will depend upon your climate. Tropical species can be grown indoors, but (generally speaking) only if you can provide artificial light approximating sunlight. In the line of tropicals, pemphis and small leafed figs (ficus) are two species that come to mind. Jade plants (crassula) do very well in low light indoors.
In the line of temperate plants, pinus thunbergii (Japanese black pine) is the classic bonsai tree, and can even be grown in the tropics. There are a multitude of small azaleas that are relatively carefree to grow in small pots.
I am a bonsai enthusiast, living in USDA plant zone 8. I have many varieties of maples (acer palmatum, acer ginnala, acer platanoides,and acer rubrum) that I have kept in pots smaller than 1 litre for 5 or so years now. I also have Douglas firs, lodgepole pines, pinus parviflora, pinus strobus, pinus mugo, spruce (Colorado blue, picea abies, and picea abies 'nidiformis'), cedars (Atlas and libani), elms (ulmus parviflora 'Suiju' and Zelkova serrata), cotoneasters, pyracantha, forsythia, varieties of prunus, malus and pyrus, stewartia, boxwoods, junipers, escallonia, ceanothus, and a few others that I'm not recalling right now. For bonsai we look at species with short internodes and small leaves or ones that will exhibit this behavior when confined to small pots.
But, there are a number of slow growing miniature cultivars that are sold in the U.S. for 'rock gardens'. Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki cypress) 'chirimen' is one that comes to mind that will do just fine with little attention for about 5 years in a 1 litre container. Cedrus libani 'Kenwith' and 'Green Prince' are a couple more of this type.
The issue really isn't what plants can be grown in pots smaller than one litre (just about any species), but the materials and techniques to do it successfully. Otherwise, just look for slow growing, miniature, 'rock garden' plants at your local garden center.