This is likely a gall produced by a fly on a species of goldenrod. When the fly lays the eggs in the tip of the plant a hormone is produced that interferes with the normal development of the plant cells, forming that bulge which will protect the developing eggs and larvae. See for example this discussion.
Looks like Senna obtusifolia, aka sicklepod. On page 25 of this reference it says
"The leaves of S.obtusifolia are photosensitive and the leaflets fold
upward by flexible petioles at night or on cloudy days."
I wish I knew myself. It is taking over my lawn. The worst part about it is that in the fall it dies, leaving bare spots where it crowded out the grass.
*** I stumbled on the answer a few minutes ago. It is Japanese Stiltgrass! An invasive weed that will take over your lawn. The good news is you can kill it with the following two produdcts: ...
Not hogweed...hogweed has palmate leaf venation and this is not. Hog weed is in the Umbelliferae family. This plant is clearly from the Asteraceae family. Kudos to those who mentioned Lactuca which is in the Aster family too. This appears to be the plant commonly known as sow thistle.
It looks enough like Giant Hogweed or Cow Parsnip to warrant serious caution. The leaf shape is quite similar, and you can see small hairs on the detail photo. When identifying dangerous plants, please always err on the side of caution.
In the US there is usually some local public outreach service to help people identify plants. In NY, this would be a good ...
It looks more like one of the wild lettuce species (Lactuca genus) than hogweed. If it is wild lettuce, then it should bloom yellow this summer.
Here's an excellent photo of giant hogweed: https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/gardening/a21598753/giant-hogweed/
As the article accompanying that photo states "The easiest way to identify giant hogweed is to ...
If we compare the Wikipedia descriptions of Medicago lupulina (medic) with trefoil there is an interesting comment under medic "The leaflets are hairy, toothed toward the tip, and differ from those of the similar Trifolium dubium in that they end in a short point." The photos seem to indicate this short point, so perhaps medic in this case. Otherwise it ...
It looks like what I call "garlic mustard" a European invasive . Wikipedia shows some photos like yours and somewhat different. In the forest preserves in northern IL they are manually pulled by volunteers. I don't know if that is because it is resistant to herbicides or to avoid using herbicides in the preserves. It first showed up about 40+ years ago.
It's the species form of Aegopodium podograria - also known as Bishop's Weed in Wisconsin. It is an extremely nasty invasive because, as you noted, it spreads via rhizomes, which are thin and easily broken. Any pieces left in the ground during removal will sprout a new plant if there is a root node on them.
The first thing you need to do is deadhead/...
I have removed tall grasses like this by selectively use of herbicide. Put the herbicide in a small container. Put on a latex glove with a cotton glove (or even a sock) over it. Dip your covered fingertips in the herbicide and wipe it on the grass leaves. Some people use a 1” paintbrush to paint the leaves. Go back in another week and do the same thing.
It is a weed, frequent on vegetable gardens.
But as you see, it growth tall. So just cut lawn regularly and it should disappear. Note: I think it is also an annual herb. So just do not let if to make fruits, and you should not get it back next year. Look also for borders, in order to remove spikes.
Maybe it is Setaria ? But I would not bet on my guessing ...