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1

The issue looks to me like the fungal disease apple scab. Your confirmation that the weather has been wet and cool helps to confirm it, and the tree's position in the corner of a tall fence helps to exacerbate the problem due to much-reduced airflow in and around the tree. The tree could also use a good pruning in its interior to improve airflow by opening ...


2

Right in the corner of the yard is a nice location for annuals or perennial plants, but not a great location for a tree. Try to imagine the tree in 10 years time, it will want to spread out and will overhang quite a bit the other side of the fence. Roots will spread in a circle, running under the fence to who knows what on the other side. We can see for ...


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I would suggest looking at recent/modern info on high density orchards - you should get more apples on a faster timescale with the appropriate rootstocks and management. e.g. https://ag.umass.edu/sites/ag.umass.edu/files/pdf-doc-ppt/highdensityapple.pdf


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I think the following book matches your needs (in terms of content, level, style, etc.): Apples: botany, production and uses From publisher site (emphasis is min): This book, with contributions from 40 scientists from 8 countries, summarizes the current research information on apples and their culture, and will be of value to horticultural students, ...


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The fuzzy white stuff seems to be the Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum). This is quite a serious pest of apple trees. These aphids form colonies at wound sites, where they feed on bark. So ironically, by pruning your tree you have probably been encouraging the spread of the aphids, since you've been creating lots of new wounds for them to infest. Wooly ...


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Looks like dry rot=fungus. Once it is in the wood it is unlikely that it can be saved. However it may live several years. Removing any infected wood is all I know to do; that won't save it but may extend life.


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