I've just received a small plant in a tiny pot. I read somewhere that you should not repot in an enormous pot but in one that's a bit bigger. This makes no sense to me. Why wouldn't I just pick the pot that will accommodate the full size that the plant will grow to (in a few years) and immediately put the plant in this sized pot to avoid future repots?
The reasoning behind this advice to only use the right sized pot is that if you put a very small plant into a large pot filled with potting medium, most of the medium (potting compost) will not be occupied by anything except bacteria and other life forms, some of which may not be desirable. The compost may 'sour' and become toxic to the plant, so if your plant is very small, I do recommend you pot on into a slightly larger pot, though quite what size you chance using is really down to which plant you're talking about, you haven't said. Some plants have a rapid growth rate, others don't.
In addition to the reasons Bamboo offered, some plants - like Jade plants - do better a little potbound. This means they like to have their roots crowded in the soil. Also, houseplants generally need to be replanted from time to time anyway - they aren't in a natural environment where new soil is being generated and worms and other critters are aerating the soil. Repotting from time to time helps make up for that.