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Is this mushroom or animal? I can remove the black dots by slightly scratching the leaves.

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If you can remove them from the leave then they are scale. Due to the dark colour I believe they are Black Scale (Saissetia oleae). They suck juices from the plant and excrete a sugary sap. Look for sticky leaves. Ants are sometimes seen in close company with these pests.

For small plants some control can be done with soap and water but a complete answer is here.

They are described here and an excellent answer on maintenance of citrus is here

Edit @RockScience feels they are a different species of scale for which a reference can be found here. Either way soap and water and possibly a toothbrush for "hands on" pest control will work.

  • thank you very much for your help. After some research based on your hint, it seems to be 'Parlatoria ziziphi', which is indeed a variety of black scale. The leaves are not really sticky but comparing my plant with pictures of this scale is clear. – RockScience Aug 23 '13 at 16:43
  • dspace.unict.it/bitstream/10761/1219/1/… for a good reference – RockScience Aug 23 '13 at 17:43

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