The ideal climate to grow avos in is sub-tropical - ideally 15-30 degree centigrade temperatures - but you can go lower and higher. The thing is that avocados do not like freezing weather - most types (including Hass) die when frost hits, but a few types are quite a lot hardier.
Varieties with better cold tolerance include Fuerte, Reed, Bacon, Zutano (among others - i've ordered these, roughly, by how good the fruits are). Bigger trees are more frost tolerant, but you will struggle to find varieties which survive under -3c.
More sunlight = faster growth, but its not lack of light that kills them, its cold weather and wet roots - good drainage is a must.
As at today, all the other answers ignore some key facts -
1. An avocado grown from seed will not be the same as its parent type.
2. It might never bear fruit, it could take 20 years to bear fruit,
but a minimum of 7 years.
3. The "correct" way to grow an avocado is to graft a cutting of a known
variety onto a plant grown from seed, or, better, Zutano rootstock.
It is probably possible to grow an entire plant from a cutting as well.
4. Unless you have extremely variable weather, you need 2 types of avocados
for fruiting to occur - an "A" and "B" type, each which opens its flowers
as male and female at different kinds. New Zealand is a bit unique in
as much as weather is so variable you can often get away with 1 plant,
but multiple plants will provide better yields.
Provided they are exposed to sunlight, good drainage and lots of non-chlorinated water, Avo trees should grow ok indoors, but for even a slim chance of getting fruit you will need a very large pot and probably an avocado on dwarf root stock - even then, the chances of yielding fruit are slim.