I'm new to gardening, and I'm slightly confused by something. How can I tell what seeds / plants should be planted in a certain season? For example, I'm having trouble telling if there are general rules like vegetables should be planted at certain seasons? Could someone fill me in on the different seasons & which seeds should be planted then?
There are "calendars" of crops, explaining what to do each month. You have to think that it is impossible to give a detailed analysis of each, because the size of the ground, conformation, climate, soil composition, and the tastes of the farmer are always different. You like strawberries, green beans to me. A clay soil is dry, another is acidic and moist. Some plants are perennial, others annual.
You have to start by choosing a few plants and inform you on how you grow and what they need. In this way, you'll also formed your own "calendar". Note each job.
In general (very general, attention):
In winter the plants are resting. You can transplant the perennials, and plant annual plants in a cold greenhouse. Need pruning perennials.
In the spring: cleaning the ground, manure, the seeds sown are transplanted. The flowering vines are pruned after flowering too.
In summer: you get the fruits, you repair the damaged plants, the bushes with rapid growth are pruned back to.
In the autumn: you keep everything clean from fallen leaves, you reinforce the soil, adding protection (mulch) for the winter, sow winter crops (cabbage) and spring (crocus, tulips, daffodils, etc.).
But it all depends on your climate. The nearest agricultural consortium will surely have a general book. Make your selection and let them explain what it needs each plant you want.
Buy also the main tools: shears, shovel, rake, hoe. And a watering system. Care that the tools are always clean and disinfected.
Are you in the US? If so, there are plenty of sites online that will show you suggested planting dates for different vegetables based on the USDA planting zone you live in or even based on your zip code. That would be the best place to start.