No, a typical weed and feed product will not be safe on newly germinated grass. For example, the label for Scotts Turf Builder Weed & Feed (active ingredients: 2,4-D and mecoprop-p) says,
Delay application on newly seeded, sodded or sprigged areas until new grass has been mowed 4 times.
The label for BioAdvanced 5-In-1 (active ingredients: 2,4-D, Quinclorac, Dicamba, and Dithiopyr) says,
Use only on established lawns
While I don't know every single weed and feed product on the market, I suspect you'll find similar restrictions on most of them. Well-established grass can survive a broad-leafed weed killer, but new grass is not so resilient.
You may need to manually control the weeds around your new grass until it gets well established enough to survive an herbicide application. The creeping charlie will probably be fairly easy; if in fact it has "crept" in rather than growing from seeds, you can simply pull on the new growth and rip out the entire runner back to where it came from.
The other option is to just let the weeds grow with the grass until the new grass is well enough established to survive a weed control product.
As an aside, make sure you're not applying a weed and feed product more often than the label recommends. A weed and feed product is a combination of fertilizer and herbicide, so if you're mostly using it for the weed control you may end up putting down too much fertilizer, which at a minimum is a waste of money, and might actually be bad for your lawn. Some weed and feed products (such as the BioAdvanced 5-in-1 I mentioned above) include herbicides that will build up in the soil, and if you apply them too often they will reach levels that will harm your turfgrass or leach into nearby areas and harm other garden plants, shrubs, trees, etc. If you only need the broad-leafed weed control, consider getting a dedicated broadleaf weed control product so you're only applying the chemicals you need and avoiding unintended effects that come from using a multipurpose product.