Short answer to your question is "yes , plants can be grown in 3d printed transparent vase with open top area"
But few key features should be kept in mind.
- Material and it's thickness matter's : current technology used for transparent 3d printing includes FDM 3D printing,SLA and Polyjet technology while the material used are acrylic,veroClear resign which provides decent transparency but more thickness or translucent material means less sunlight . Remember, plant is only able to convert 10% of sunlight into its food.
2.Type of plant : plants which requires less sunlight and grows easily in shade would be a good choice.
3.Top area and height of the vase : so the flow of air is directly linked to top area of vessel (more top area ,better air circulation ) and inversely proportional to height of vessel .More deeper the vessel ,less is the air flow .
Hope this answers your second question as well.