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I have a vegetable garden and I like to BBQ. I only use hardwood lump charcoal for BBQ.

My question is that does it help my garden if I put the ash to my garden? Also, how about the charcoal dust at the bottom of every lump charcoal bag? Will they help my garden as well?

I heard of biochar but don't think lump charcoal counts. However, better than going to trash I guess?

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Adding the ashes from your barbeque has to be done in small amounts and not often, and only if you know what your soil ph is beforehand, because ashes are alkaline and will affect soil ph. Some vegetables like alkaline soils (mustard greens, cabbage,cauliflower), or at least a ph value between 7.0 and 8.0, but other vegetables do not.

If you have a compost pile, small amounts can be added to that, but if you barbeque frequently, you will likely not be able to recycle all the ashes in this way, even though you used hardwood charcoal, see here, scroll down towards the end where it mentions your type of barbeque coals/ashes https://www.gardeningetc.com/news/should-you-use-bbq-ash-in-garden-soil

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I've always tossed my ashes in a compost pile first and then added them to the garden after the pile is finished. If you're trying to make good compost then you can only add a few ashes into the pile, but if youre trying to use compost to neutralize your ashes to add them to the garden you can use primarily ashes, I'd say up to 45% by volume should be fine, make sure to add larger chunks in too though for airflow.

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