What is this spiky tree as seen in northern Mississippi?
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This looks like Zanthoxylum clava-herculis to me based on the distinctive look and region that you mentioned. It's also known as the Hercules' club, pepperwood, or southern prickly ash:
Here's the range distribution map:
It looks strikingly similar to these pictures in another identification post. Bamboo provided a bit more information about the plant called Ceiba speciosa. Perhaps the additional characteristics listed by Bamboo (bulbous base, not always pronounced) and the original poster of the similar/same identification question (thorns also present) are also true of the tree you found?
Bamboo stated it is commonly known as Silk Floss tree, native to parts of South America.