Located near Chicago, IL, USA
This plant started growing around July and a month later produced some yellow flowers. It seems that the flowers turn orange when they are dying. It is about 1 foot tall. It has small thorns on the edge of its leaves.
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It is Carthamus tinctorius or safflower. If you didn't plant it, it's probably grown from a seed dropped by birds. It's an annual plant, and is grown as a crop for the safflower oil which can be extracted. All sorts of information on this plant here https://owlcation.com/stem/Safflower-Uses-A-Vegetable-Oil-A-Dye-and-Insulin-For-Diabetics