The problem is you've got them indoors. These trees (Koelreuteria paniculata) are deciduous and hardy in USDA zones 5-9, so should be able to tolerate a winter where you are. Being deciduous, at this time of year they should have lost or been in the process of losing their leaves for winter dormancy. Added to that, moving them outdoors for short periods and bringing them back in again to the heat won't be helping.
I think the only thing you can do is start to harden them off gradually - leave them outside for an hour or so in the middle of the day, and when you bring them back in, leave them somewhere cooler than average indoor room temperatures if you can. If that is a growlight of some sort in the image, stop using that too. Then gradually extend the number of hours they're outside over a period of a week or two in one continuous and extending process during that time, till finally, they're out all night, preferably choosing a milder night. Cluster the pots together outdoors in a sheltered spot (against a house wall or whichever area you know is less exposed) to reduce the risk of the soil freezing in the pots (if it gets that cold, that is, below 32 deg F for more than a week both at night AND in the daytime). If you have a cold greenhouse you could stand them in there when its very cold, otherwise, try providing some insulation round the pots to try to stop them freezing, because once they're hardened off, the only thing that might kill them is the soil freezing in the pots.