I've heard it mentioned before that Japanese people use chicken manure in their bonsai soil mix.
Is this a good idea? If so, what quantities should I be mixing in to the soil?
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Chicken manure is an excellent resource because it contains the highest N-P-K rating amongst all other organic matter, don't let anyone tell you otherwise. The japanese people do know what they are doing when it comes to mixing this type of manure with bonsai. I would say only a handful of organic matter is needed.
There is a product, Jobe's organic fertilizer, that contains nutrients that are from, among other sources, poultry manure. It is low enough in analysis to not be a worry as to burning a bonsai tree. I have just sprinkled the "all purpose" mix, I believe it is called on the top of the soil of my bonsais. The bag gives amounts to use depending on size of pot. Even this considers all potted plants it seems reasonable for bonsais. The reviews on this product which I ran across by accident were excellent so I hope to see some interesting results.
While Chicken/and Bat droppings are indeed high in N-P-K I will advise you NOT to add this your soil mix. My wife did this many many years ago and killed a large selection of our early bonsai.
I would actually advise you not to use such a high strength organic fertilizer at all on bonsai. What keep bonsai at their healthiest and happiest is when they have a steady flow of fertilizer in low strengths. Since bonsai are usually watered every day they receive a continue slow addition of fertilizer, since the soils drain freely and don't hold much nutrients this is necessary.
Here is a selection of excellent fertilizers specifically intended for growing bonsai.
If you want to make your own fertilizer cakes (as many people do) here is a great link to an article by the Columbus Bonsai Society on Making Fertilizer Balls
We do sometimes water with MiracleGrow just like you would fruits or vegetables but remember that the salts will wash out of the pots after a few waterings (assuming you have proper bonsai soil) so it is mostly for foliar feeding.