Maybe I am "projecting" here (because your photo could obviously be a lot of things), but this looks a lot like what we have in our yard (California, but I have seen this on the East Coast too).
The way you mention that it smells when bruised, and that it will get several feet high - maybe higher, reminds me of "Paradise Tree", sometimes called "Tree-of-Heaven" (!), "&*!!@ Peanut-Butter Tree", or Ailanthus altissima. Here is a picture of it from the website of Van den Berk Nurseries:
Here's its entry in the Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. And, here's an evocatively titled article on it called "Tree of Heaven: A Devil In Disguise."
It's horrible. It grows about a foot a month (or faster!), eventually becoming an enormous tall tree. Also, yes to the underground roots.
Don't know how to eradicate it, but check into whether this is it, and good luck.
My current strategy is to try to stay on top of new arrivals of this pest ASAP. It is surprisingly easy for seedlings up to maybe almost 1/2 inch diameter, to just yank them out by the root.
Also since the tree grows so fast, as blacksmith37 notes in his comment, the wood is super soft, & I am able to pretty quickly cut off little trees up to 2-3 inches diam. with a hand saw and afterward paint thoroughly with "Vine and Stump Killer". (No, I am not selling this product, and it may not even be necessary, but I used it thinking it might help.) This is a photo of one of the stumps, somewhere between 1 and 3 yrs. after I chopped & painted it. Notice it doesn't seem to be re-sprouting, and it's not due to lack of water. Drought doesn't bother these guys.