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This one here is about 4-5 feet tall they are about 1/8" to 1/4" from top to bottom in Northern Indianaenter image description here

  • what part of the world are you in? – kevinsky Jul 15 '19 at 23:19
  • Northern Indiana – Art Jul 15 '19 at 23:51
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This is likely a gall produced by a fly on a species of goldenrod. When the fly lays the eggs in the tip of the plant a hormone is produced that interferes with the normal development of the plant cells, forming that bulge which will protect the developing eggs and larvae. See for example this discussion.

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