How do I eliminate the patches?
Also, the border of my lawn continues to die. Could this be caused by an irrigation issue or from the edge trimmer?
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While I can not say with any certainty what is causing the difference in color from one part of your yard to the next. I can say there are steps you can take at home to figure this out. I would start by getting online and buying a soil sample test kit. Test the soil in a region of light green grass and test it again in a region of darker color. I suspect as was suggested in the comments that you will notice a lack of nutrients in the light green areas. Assuming there is not an obvious cause for this, such as a slight elevation/depression of the top soil, then it can most likely be fixed by adjusting your fertilization on the problem areas.
I would assume the dying grass near the boarder of the lawn is caused by a clear separation between the dirt/grass and the boarder. What tends to happen in these areas is that the water, instead of feeding the grass, slips into the separation and drains out underneath the turf. An approach to fixing them would be to fill in those gaps about half way with sand and the rest of the way with dirt. Then remove the dead turf and replant new seed. Rinse and repeat until the problem areas go away, good luck!
Light green grasses outgrowing the planted turf grass like perennial rye pop up often in the spring. This grass is also identified easily as it grows faster than almost any variety of turf. The grass outgrows the planted turf grass by inches every week. This growth pace will continued through the spring into early summer. The grass will produce massive numbers of seeds that will ripen and fall into the turf to grow again next year.
When the summer hot weather arrives this grass loses its vigor, turns pale and dies. No amount of water will cause it to grow again and the grass is a winter annual. It will not recover at any time this year after it has died. The seeds dropped during the summer will supply the basis of the light green grass in the spring time, repeating the cycle.
This wild member of the bluegrass family, the dreaded Poa Annua, has struck again. In the fall preemergent can be applied in early September. The seeds lying dormant will not germinate, and will not explode in the spring.
No working herbicide is available to kill the Annua at this time. Annua can be identified and slowed with an application of the herbicide Tenacity. Be aware that the product slows the photosynthesis process causing the grass to turn white or light yellow. Most turf grasses do not turn as white and some remain truly dark green.