Firstly, even if You were to populate an entire garden with plants that never produce flowers, it still wouldn't prevent yellow-jackets, wasps or hornets from flying in and possibly building their nests nearby because nectar isn't the only food source for them. You see, come spring all the way through summer, wasps need protein to support the hive and the queen and that protein comes in the form of other insects and pests that are present in almost every garden. Come autumn, they shift their attention to sugar for the winter and in doing so through out the growing season, they help pollinate plants and get rid of harmful insects. So see them as pest eaters for that's what they really are. What you can do, however, is minimise the number of these annoying stingers by making sure your garden isn’t a wasp magnet or in your case, choosing the right climber and caring for it correctly. If your willing to compromise on flowers, then choose a fruitless grapevine that is of course attended to for pest infestations. However if flowering is a must then choose a climbing rose. There are a few things wasps are particularly not fond of. Red flowers (wasps aren’t attracted to warm red colours). Marigolds (many insects don’t like the smell). Closed and double-flowered plants such as roses (too hard to access). Flowers that don’t produce much nectar such as Geraniums. Flowers that bloom before wasp season. So from the list, red colour + roses and you get a climbing rose that would probably work best given the criteria.
The OP has found a paper that discusses pollinator flower color preferences and has asked that it be added to this answer. The paper, titled "Pollinators show flower colour preferences but flowers with similar colours do not attract similar pollinators" is from the National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine and was published in 2016.