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Last summer, the leaves of the chestnut tree in our back yard have, quite early on in the warm season, developed these stains on them: enter image description here enter image description here

All of the tree's leaves dried out and fell long before autumn (around late June). I understand this might have been caused by a Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner infection, which seem very common in Europe in later years, and against which apparently no cure currently exists, once appeared.

Assuming this parasite is in fact what's causing the leaves' degradation in this case, then I am wondering how likely it is that the same parasite will infect the same tree next spring as well, or whether this just happens randomly and cannot be prevented. If it can be prevented, what substance can use?

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The situation has not changed I'm afraid; it can neither be prevented nor treated, but if you only have one or two trees and are able to collect up all fallen leaves as soon as they fall, it might be worth trying a pheremone trap, if you can get them where you live. These are a relatively recent development for horse chestnut leaf miner, and not having used this one, I can't speak to its efficacy, although I can say pheremone traps for other types of moth problems in apple trees are useful. The information here https://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profile?pid=533 is obviously applicable to the UK in terms of pheremone traps, but the rest of the information is still useful.

I have noticed that some years the damage starts later in the summer, other years it's quite early, not long after the flowers have bloomed, but it always appears at some point during summer after the first year of infection. Whilst unsightly, it does not kill the trees, they seem to cope with the damage, though they may lose their leaves earlier than they otherwise would.

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