I think you have a fertilizer or rather a chemistry problem. Have you ever fertilized?
The only other cause would be pH. Too far off the pH scale one way or the other, some plants are unable to take up chemistry they need. There could be plenty of nitrogen in the soil for example and if the pH is off, the plant is unable to use that nitrogen for example.
There are pH testers that are inexpensive.
I think I am seeing in your photos, plants growing in a 3" gap in the concrete patio. Is that right?
The heat during the summer collected and transferred to the soil by the concrete could kill fragile feeder roots.
Have you used any cleaner or chemicals on your patio? Washed down into the gap with the roots?
Have you ever added fertilizer? A balanced all purpose fertilizer with N P K? Concerning fertilizer; Less is Best, More is Death and None is Dumb. Kind of silly ditty but very important to remember.
Update: I advise use of Osmocote 14-14-14 at half the amount and applications directed on label.
Testing of pH. Ipomea loves acidic soils; neutral 7.0 down to 6.5
Ipomea needs a dappled or light shade. Will not do well in full sun or full shade.