Yes, there are cucumbers that only produce female flowers: These are gynoecious cucumbers. Yes, there are cucumbers that produce (seedless) fruit without being fertilized: These are parthenocarpic cucumbers. Yes, there are cucumbers that are both.
If your cucumbers are not parthenocarpic you'll want a pollinator. Most cucumbers produce plenty of early male flowers (so, you may have time to plant some). They should also produce female ones, but there should be plenty of male flowers.
Parthenocarpy is more common in cucumbers than most other vegetables, but there are also parthenocarpic tomatoes, F1 hybrid summer squash, and peppers (I only know of the Planet F1 pepper). I believe there are gynoecious summer squash, too.
People don't always call cucumbers such as yours parthenocarpic and gynoecious. Some people might say they're greenhouse cucumbers. I believe English cucumbers and greenhouse cucumbers are the same thing.
Gynoecious cucumbers are likely to be F1 hybrids. So, just look for open-pollinated types if you want male flowers. However, I know Monika is semi-gynoecious, and it's not an F1 hybrid; so, be careful of that one. You probably only need a pollinator if you want to save seeds, however, unless your plants aren't fully parthenocarpic.
You need to know the names of the breeds of cucumbers you're dealing with. Then you can look them up and discover what flowering/fruiting habits they have. The appearance of the seedlings probably won't tell you that sort of thing. The breed name is usually on the tag or the seed packet. People more commonly call that the variety name (but that doesn't jive so well with some taxonomists who interpret that to mean something else). Also, people use the word 'variety' to refer to types of plants (like any plant with certain traits) instead of breeds, sometimes (so, it's a mess; it's as confusing as calling any black dog with floppy ears a Black Lab regardless of its ancestry and other traits while other people use it to refer to Black Labs specifically). 'Cultivar' is also a term used for many breeds, but it doesn't apply to all (so, it's not synonymous with 'breed'). 'Breed' is more commonly used with animals, but it may be used with plants, too.