These are nymphs of the whitefly insect a common garden pest. From comparing them to this picture I believe they are closely related to the cabbage whitefly.
They can be controlled with a spray of a mixture of dish soap and water, followed by a quick rinse with a hose. Ladybugs also eat them but convincing them to eat your bugs is another job.
They don't do a lot of damage to the plant if controlled promptly. You could spray soap and water, discard the worst affected leaves and harvest.
EDIT @gunbuster363 could be right that they are aphids. The way to tell is if when you shake the leaf does anything fly around. Whitefly will usually have some adults with wings whereas aphids are not usually seen with wings.
Soap and water works well on aphids too!