Not being very familiar with this region, I am looking for guidance on suitable soil characteristics. I know that this plant tends to thrive in arid, nutrient poor soils, but I'd love to have more detail such as soil pH and type.
This succulent is not particular about soil but is said it should do well in draining cactus mix such as clean fine sand, grit and soil for a dessert succulent. Although tolerant of pH ranges it is often found in areas where limestone occurs.
it is best to grow this plant outdoors in the full sun from mid May through the summer months, to benefit from increased sunlight and warm temperatures. Even though this species will regularly experience temperatures above 100 degrees in habitat (it is native to the extreme southwestern corner of Arizona and south, well into central and western Mexico)
The summer climate of Minnesota according to wikipedia
Summer high temperatures in Minnesota average in the mid-80s F (30 °C) in the south to the upper-70s F (25 °C) in the north, with temperatures as hot as 114 °F (46 °C) possible.
looks compatible with this person's experience
summer temperatures, averaging between the mid 70’s to the high 90’s appears to be warm enough for it to produce good growth. It is my impression that without this period of warm temperatures and bright light, this species will not thrive – it is not really suited for a year-round existence as a houseplant.
So, either put in a glasshouse in winter or bring it inside, and if necessary induce dormancy in a dark cool place.