Last year I planted chive onions outside. Today I discovered that they survived. If I transplant them indoors, will they survive and produce a good yield?
Not necessarily - chives are perennial bulbs which die back naturally for winter, hardy down to Zone 3, and will return year on year, in spring lasting up till fall, outdoors. You can try taking some indoors, but that means digging up the bulbs and disturbing their root system, which likely will mean they die back.
Alternatively, cut the stems, snip them into small pieces, and use foil to make little parcels, just enough for individual food use, pop the foil parcels into a plastic bag and put them in the freezer. When you want some during winter, just remove as many as you need.