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I bought the house in January. There are two apple trees side by side. One is more of a crab apple tree with mall apples that turn red. But the other tree grows bigger yellow-ish apples. I've picked enough to bake a pie and it was really good! Some are a little more sour than others but still nice and sweet. I'm just wondering what type of apple it is. I googled it and got different answers, including Pristine, Lodi, Golden Delicious, Ginger Gold, etc.

Anyway I'd love to know what apples these are when I share my next pie!

fruit

tree

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There are so very many cultivars of apples that unless you went to an apple orchard master or a botanist at a University who could put a flower on a microscope there is just no way to tell you exactly what you have in that pie!

This looks like a Golden Delicious type versus the tarter, firmer Granny Smith type. There are probably 6 or 7 different other varieties for each of these two 'types' (my own description). If not more. Perhaps there will be someone else to answer that knows Apple species/varieties better than me! You probably know what I mean by the Green 'Jonagold' (hybrid of Jonathan and Golden Delicious) and 'Granny Smith' types.

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To my mind 'Yellow Transparent' ('Glass Apple') is a reasonable candidate but I fear there is no way to be sure merely from a single photograph of a single specimen. 'Yellow Transparent' is an offspring of 'Lodi' - so similarities you have noted would be expected. The 'Jonagold' example images on Wikipedia are much redder. But identification problems are many as Malus domestica is the most widely cultivated Malus (Worldwide production of apples in 2014 was 84.6 million tonnes) and has been grown for thousands of years.

The genome of apple ('Golden Delicious') has been sequenced – The total number of genes predicted for the apple genome (57,386, including some genes that may be present only in one of the two chromosomes of a pair) is the highest reported among plants so far (about twice the number in humans) so there is much scope for variation. Possibly the earliest tree to be cultivated there are now more than 7,500 known cultivars to choose from so differences can be subtle. In addition they are not necessarily consistent. For example, consider size with regard to just a dozen of the varieties most readily available in shops. "Small" could hint at 'Cox's Orange Pippin' rather than say 'Bramley's Seedling' but while the latter tend to be larger than average ("two or three times the weight of a typical dessert apple") some examples from any given tree will be much smaller than average. Blooms do not all open at the same time and fruit from the central flower, which develops first, is generally larger than from others.

There is a further complication in that apples may develop mutations even on a single branch (bud sports).

Also, when grown of a rootstock which rootstock can make a difference.

And naming is not consistent. The Wikipedia article Apple starts with "The apple tree (Malus pumila, commonly and erroneously called Malus domestica) and essentially the same 'genetic' cultivar may have different names. The National Fruit Collection offers:

Alebastrovoe
Belui nalif
Belui naliv
Bely naliv
Belya naliv
Belyi naliv nastoiascii
Biala prozracina
Biali Nalew
Bjalij naliv
Charlottentaler
Charlottenthaler
Clar Alb
de Revel
Durchsichtiger Sommerapfel
Feher Clar
Fransk Gylling
Franzosischer Sommerapfel
Grand Sultan
Grand-Sultan
Gustav I's Munapple
Hvit Astrakan
Hvit Klarann
Hvitt Klarapple
Inflancka
Inflanckie
Jaune Transparente
Jellow Transparent
Klarapfel
Klargylling
Kornapfel
Livlander Klarapfel
Naliv beli
Naliv Belui
Naliv skvoznoi
Naliv Transparent
Nalivnoe beloe
Nalivnoie Beloie
Nalivnoje Beloje
Naliw Bjelyi
Naliwjoje heloje
Oogstappel
Paperovka
Paperuvka
Papierdwka biala
Papierowka biela
Papierowka letnia
Papirovka
Papirowka
Pipierowka letnia
Pipka Alebastrovaya
Polnischer Papierapfel
Pomme d'Aout
Pomme d'Astracan Blanche
Pomme d'Or
Pomme de Revel
Pomme Transparente
Pomme Transparente Blanche
Pomme Transparente Jaune
Prozracinoe beloe
Prusvitne Zlute
Scharlottenthaler Golba
Sen Vitgul Astrakan
Sklenene zlute
Transparent Blanch
Transparent Blanche
Transparent de St. Leger
Transparent de Zurich
Transparent Jaune
Transparente
Transparente Blanche
Transparente Blanche de St. Leger
Transparente d'Astracan
Transparente d'Ete
Transparente de Moskovie
Transparente de Muscovie d'EtT
Transparente de Saint-Leger
Transparente de St. Leger
Transparente de Zurich
Transparente Jaune
Vinapple
Vitt Klarapple
Weisser Klarapfel
Weisser Transparent
Weisser Transparentapfel
Weisser Transparente
White Transparente
Yellow Transparent
Yellow Transparente

and includes Yellow Transparent amongst synonyms for Transparente de Croncels:

Apfel aus Croncels
Apfel von Croncels
Croncels
Croncels Transparent
Croncelské
Croncelské
Cronselska
Cronselske
Durchsichtiger aus Croncels
Eisapfel aus Croncels
Eisapfel von Croncels
Glasapfel
Glasapfel aus Croncels
Kronselska
Kronselskoe prazrachnoe
Kronselskoe Prozrachnoe
Olivka Kronselska
Oliwka Kronselska
Pomme de Croncels
Prozracinoe Kronseliskoe
Rosen Apfel von Croncels
Transparent de Concelles
Transparent de Conseils
Transparent de Croncelles
Transparent de Croncels
Transparent von Croncels
Transparentapfel
Transparentapfel von Croncels
Yellow Transparent

(and 'Snell's White' for 'Glass Apple').

To take differentiation between 'Jonagold' and 'Grimes Golden' (a parent of 'Golden Delicious' and another variety you mentioned) as an example, Orange Pippin considers 66 characteristics:

Flesh colour 
Fruit size 
Fruit shape 
Shape features 
Shape features (vertical view) 
Shape uniformity 
Bultitude apple group 
Seeds - size
Core 
Seeds - point
Seeds - characteristics
Core - carpels
Core - lines
Core - lines meeting
Calyx / Sepals- Opening 
Calyx / Sepals - Opening
Calyx / Sepals - Size
Calyx / Sepals - Width
Calyx Tube - Shape
Calyx Tube -  Length 
Calyx Tube -  Size 
Calyx Tube -  Stamen 
Calyx / Sepals - Description
Russet 
Russet details 
All green or yellow 
Skin color (when ripe) 
Skin blush 
Skin blush (color) 
Scarf skin 
Suture lines 
Bloom 
Skin waxy or greasy 
Skin feel 
Stripes 
Stripes (details) 
Stripes (color) 
Stem (length) 
Stem (thickness) 
Stem cavity (russet) 
Stem (position) 
Stem (details) 
Stem (color) 
Stem Cavity (protruberances) 
Stem Cavity (side view depth) 
Stem Cavity (skin features) 
Stem Cavity (slope to stem) 
Stem Cavity (top view orientation) 
Stem Cavity (top view width) 
Basin skin 
Basin width 
Basin russet 
Basin (top view) 
Basin (side view slope to eye) 
Basin (side view depth) 
Basin (protruberances) 
Basal lobes 
Dots (description) 
Dots (numbers) 
Dots (size) 
Dots (skin lenticels) 
Dots (spread) 
Flesh (staining) 
Flesh (texture) 
Flesh (grain) 
Flesh (juiciness)

Of these, about 100 (most of the above are subdivided) are shared by the two varieties (eg Fruit size –variable). More than that are not shared … in general, but individual specimens may share some of these, even if the majority do not. For example for "Flesh (texture)", "Firm changing to Soft" applies to 'Jongold' whereas "Tender, Soft, Melting", "Granular, Coarse, Mealy" and "Moderate" only to 'Grimes Golden'. So not only does the degree of softness appear to be required for some indication, but "Crisp, Breaking into chuncks" is shared by both anyway.

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