The main problem I see with germinating seeds in compost is that compost is often rich in nitrogen. If it has a lot of nitrogen, they call it hot. Too much nitrogen will burn plants and prevent seeds from growing.
You can successfully grow plants in a mixture of mostly worm castings with a little peat moss. Pure worm castings might work, too. Worm castings aren't 'hot'. The plants I'm sprouting in this mixture this year are doing fine in it.
However, if you want to use regular compost (instead of worm compost), you might try adding some extra potassium to the compost. Getting the potassium and nitrogen balanced should make the nitrogen much less harmful and may even allow seeds to sprout. However, if you get too much potassium, it can also prevent seeds from sprouting. Balance seems to be the key (not amount, although there is such a thing as too much fertilizer, even if it is balanced). You could also potentially add wood chips or something to the compost, since they take nitrogen to decompose (and they contain potassium and calcium). Anyway, I haven't tried amending compost to allow seeds to start in it (and I don't know of anyone else who ever has, either), but in theory, it might work, although you probably wouldn't know off the bat exactly how much potassium you would need in order to be successful. So, don't put all your eggs in one basket if you try this.