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My Sago Palm (Cycas Revoluta) has weird-looking clumps in its roots. Is it a Phytophthora root rot infection? If not, what is it?

Root of a Sago Palm

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No, it is not. Those are nitrogen fixation nodules, similar to what alfalfa roots do. It is the result of symbiosis with a soil bacterium.

With root rot the roots die and things get a little stinky. Pinch an affected root with a thumb and forefinger and tug - the epidermal tissues will slide right off the xylem or woody core.

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Agree with Jim Young's answer, point given, but would add these are referred to as coralloid roots, and are common on Sago palm, image below

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cycas_revoluta_coralloid_roots.JPG

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