Some of the large tropical bamboos will put out new growth at a rate of 3' a day (about 1" every 40 minutes),1 which when it is a stalk diameter of over 8-10" is really rather impressive (eventually reaching over 100' in height). They can do this because of their huge, aggressive rhizome system. The new stalks come up like an asparagus stalk, then stretch and open up once they are the mature height, doing almost no growing after that point.
Giant sequoias do grow over 4' a year when young (not as fast as others, but still noticeable). I'm mentioning because the mature ones are going to be the plants that put on the most average yearly mass (as per your question).
Other than that, the only thing that, you have kudzu vines (up to 1' a day - but much more slender), Hybrid poplar (up to 10' a year), and if you count algae, it's blooms put on enormous quantities of mass in less than a day.