Timing is, IME, important. I got 3 bamboo (A Phyllostachys that I vary between thinking is one of 3 or 4 specific cultivars) that were rudely chopped off and dug up in the middle of the summer (the house it came from was being sold...) One survived, barely, and has since gone on to be a moderately decent stand given that it's not fully hardy here and all top growth is killed over the winter.
I have since potted up a section of it, and moved some about. The time to do this is (IME) just before the shoots take off in the spring. One of the bamboo nurseries makes or made much of their secret process for preparing bamboo to be potted in the fall - I'm pretty sure the secret was to pot it up in the spring, and wait.
When you see shoots (mine tend to be purplish, but that may vary) in the spring, don't wait - they are one of the fastest-growing things on the planet when they take off. Gently excavate and follow the rhizome (which looks very bamboo-lke with joints and all) back for a ways so the shoot has some supplies, cut and put it in its new home (being very careful of the tender new shoot.) The essence of doing it right then is that the plant will naturally scale itself back (as it's shooting up) to what it can support in its newly severed and transplanted condition.