The term you are looking for is perennial, describing plants that can live for many years.
Your rosemary, thyme and peppermint fall in that category.
Of these, rosemary is the most frost-sensitive, but hardyness varies somewhat between cultivars. Note that rosemary originally comes from the Mediterranean with it's mild winters.
I am a bit pragmatic when it comes to rosemary myself - I leave it where it is and see what happens. My plants are rather large and well established and if I lose a branch or two, that's ok for me. (Don't try this with the somewhat softer specimens that are often sold as herbs in supermarkets.) If you have a cold frame or unheated greenhouse, move it there, with good ventilation that will be the optimal solution. Some take rosemary inside1, 2, but you will face the usual risks like etiolation and susceptability to pests.
Thyme tolerates frost well and so does peppermint.
To prepare them for winter, just leave them where they are if they are in the ground. If they are in pots, you can "plant" the entire pot in the ground for a bit of protection, but that's optional. Note that thyme doesn't do well if it's too wet and that peppermint will die back completely over ground and re-grow from the roots in spring - don't throw the pot out too soon!
Just for the sake of completeness: The other two terms are:
annuals - live for one season and
biennials - grow one season, develop seeds and die in the next season.