Glyphosate breaks down in normal soil within a few days, or even quicker.
It can be rapidly bound to soil particles and be inactivated, unbound
glyphosate can be degraded by bacteria.
So if your soil is very poor and does not have a good level of active bacteria then the glyphosate may remain active for a lot longer. (Many agricultural soils have few active bacteria as they have not seen any real compost for the last 30 years!)
Also newly spouted seeds are a lot more sensitive then established plants. So you can kill of the weeks with glyphosate and safely plant out pre grown plants once the weeds starts to die. But if you try to sow seeds and hit the weeks with glyphosate just before the seed germinate you may get more issues.
I expect that a lot of the time when people claim programs from repeated glyphosate usage, it is more down to having “dead” soil that has not seen any compost for a long time with little plants left growing it in, therefore few of the bacterias and fungus that plants need.
Other weed killers are design to remain active for many months.
Often more than one weed killer will be mixed when sold under a brand name.