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I am looking to develop and maintain a small vegetable plot on my unit's balcony, the space available is approximately 2m x 1m (6ft x 3ft).

Conditions:

Subtropical coastal mining-port town in Australia, my unit has a balcony with full sunlight from about midday to the evening. The temperature ranges from low 20's Celsius (high 70's Fahrenheit) in winter up to mid 30's Celsius (mid 90's Fahrenheit) and extremes into the high 30's Celsius (100's Fahrenheit) are not unusual.

Rainfall is not particularly high, especially in winter as the wet season is in summer. Storms are very rare here.

Maintenance

I work four jobs, so the garden will need to be as low maintenance as possible. I am able to water daily, early morning and evening.

Which vegetables could be planted on my balcony in these conditions?

After reading the questions and answers:

I realise that my situation, while related, is different enough to warrant a separate question.

  • Big trays to hold lots of water could well be critical with those temperatures. A standard American cement shoveling tray will hold two 20 litre buckets nicely. You might want some cloth or wood to keep the sun from shining directly on the pots themselves. – Wayfaring Stranger Apr 6 '18 at 15:12
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You should be able to grow a few things here. I think the two biggest things to consider are compact size and heat tolerance. As you can water in the morning and evening, drought tolerance in't entirely necessary. Here are some veggies I would try:

  • Peppers, specifically dwarf 'patio' types, like Redskin Dwarf Sweet Pepper
  • Cucumbers, which you may want to train up a trellis (which will only need to be 18"-2' high, if you use a dwarf variety like Salad Bush Hybrid.
  • Okra
  • Purslane isn't everyones favorite, but it is a juicy, suculent green that likes growing in heat, and has a very nice nutrition profile.
  • Peas, although they are considered a cool-season crop, there is a variety called 'Tom Thumb' that stays under 1' tall, and will mature in 2 months. You can grow it during the mildest period of the year.
  • Tomatoes can be awesome, and there is a variety called 'Micro Tom', that stas about 8" tall (seriously), and is good for limited space.

Those are some that came to mind right away.

In blazing sun, especially on a 100 degree Fahrenheit day, you may want to screen then by hanging up a lightweight row cover or similar. Wind can also be detrimental when the humidity is low.

Water them whenever the tp 1/2" of soil is dry. If that is less than once a day, that's fine. It's better to water too little than too much, and a lot easier to fix.

Some of these plants will benefit from a small support/trellis, but will generally be easy maintenance other than regular watering, fertilizing, and harvesting. Pests and/or diseases can also be kept in mind, as the can take time to treat for.

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Think Vertical Gardening (Google it for ideas, images). I recommend basil, Ginger, Turmeric, and herbs of your choice. Rosemary, lemon grass, and oregano are easy to grow.

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To add to the other answers...

  • eggplant;
  • rocket / roquette / arugula;
  • endive;
  • bok choy;
  • pak choy;
  • kang kong / water spinach.
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