Apparently, what used to be a foundation for a small house is now part of our backyard. The house is long gone, but the concrete foundation has been there for as long as anyone can remember. Is there a species of tree that I can plant on or near the foundation to purposely break it? Time is not a concern.
You could plant a large, broadleaved tree (Oak for instance) near the foundation, but I wouldn't advise planting it on top. Over the years, the roots may, or may not, advance sufficiently to crack the foundation that's there, but equally, they may choose to spread in a different direction. The other consideration is how close the obsolete foundation is to your own, current residence - if it means planting a large tree such as an oak within 50 feet of that, I wouldn't recommend it, for you will be putting the foundations of your own house at risk.