What can I plant in a pot that will survive in a relatively dark room?
I have kept bamboo in my bathroom (no windows) for years and they have done very well (I do use full spectrum LED lights, which probably helps, but bamboo is reported to do well in low light/artificial light anyway). A quick search provides the following plants as being good for low light situations as well:
There are actually quite a number, mushrooms also come to mind, though they like it very dark. Just do a search for 'low light plants' and you will find many possibilities.
The classic houseplant for dark areas is Aspidistra; there are three Dracaena which will not mind a darkish environment - these are D. Draco, D.marginata and Cordyline. The Philodrendron which will cope is P. scandens.
The definition of 'shade' for houseplants is well away from a window, but enough light to read a newspaper. Semi shade means near a sunless window, or some distance away from a bright window. Semi shade plants will tolerate a shade position for a couple of months.
The list for 'shade' plants has probably already been covered, but for clarity, the well known ones are: Aglaeonema, Aspidistra, Asplenium, Fittonia, Helxine, P. scandens, Sansevieria, Scindapsis, although the variegation on the latter will fade.