The easy answer is yes, (fungal) leaf curl will affect the fruit in the sense that some will drop early and not mature at all and the remainder may be warped or develop tumour-like bulges.[1, 2] On the other hand the fruit might not be affected at all, depending on how many fungal spores manage to get in or near to the flower buds across the tree, or whether they managed to get there at all before the fruit started growing.
There is nothing I'm aware of that you can do to protect this year's crop. Just have to monitor and plan for the autumn and next spring spraying.
"Many infected fruits drop early and go unnoticed; those that remain may become crooked at the stem end like a small yellow squash, while others develop reddish to purple, wart-like deformities on the fruit surface." - Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center
"Fruits may drop early, or turn reddish-purple with warty growths on the outer surface." - Yates (NZ)