Shading the second floor requires taller trees (dooohhh, I know)
NMOsZ "vicious sun" 2-5pm photo indicates that BVFcU photo is nearer to midday.
BVFcU shows downspout (gutter drop, leaders, whatever) extenders. The driveway itself looks well-graded. The grade near the house looks too flat, IMO. OTOH, your soil looks like coarser loam or "dirty" sand, and camera lenses distort.
The state of the mowed vegetation looks more like summer or fall than spring.
Two A/C compressors on side of garage? They would like shade, too.
Water drains down fast in deep sandy soil. OTOH, the water table stays shallow near year-round rivers. County ag (cooperative extension) might have soil maps. The nearby woods suggest nothing extraordinary.
Your back (SE side?) has tilled ridges. Photos don't tell much, but the woods looks consistently immature height. Was the area clearcut 15-20 years ago?
Whitewash the brick. White roofing (too late for now, though I've read of the concept of painting roofs).
Good ventilation under the roof deck.
As others have replied, "Long-lived" and "Fast growing" are biologically/ecologically opposing adaptions.
For example, some (most?) poplar (Populus sp) species grow fast, but also drop large pieces of themselves in high winds. Fast poplars roots find and fill sewer lines.
A direct hit by strong tornado will shred even a slow sturdy tree, but will also shred the house, anyway.
AFAIK, taller trees will give better overall cooling than lower trees, even if both completely shade the ground level.
30 years is shorter-lived than average.
Initial planting size doesn't matter for some species. At least some Oak species grow faster from direct seeding. Pecans and Persian walnuts also might.
If there are no other concerns, i would grow small fast trees somewhat near the house, then large slow tree further, then large faster trees far from anything that's expensive (street, sidewalk, etc). You can also start some large slow trees as understory among the large fast trees.
I think it's obvious to choose large trees most carefully. Small plants can be revised more easily. However amongst weed species, small rapidly-maturing (seed spewing) species can be most obnoxious.
If you plant trees to fill the currently tilled area, I predict brambles and trees will seed and sprout in between. They might compete with the desirable trees. Also raccoons will move closer to the house. Around large trees I have seen weeds tilled. Near smaller trees, a large self-propelled mower might be better than tilling.
Don't plant anything large near or above sewer/septic (leach field), electrical power, gas, water supply. Communication and irrigation lines are less expensive.
Fast shade the on wall?
Visibility and security concerns near house suggest small trees rather than shrubs.
Look around the neighborhood. Take photos for ID.
Public and university libraries, garden clubs, should have info. There should be one or a few standard 'classic' regional references.
Perhaps take a quick look at homestead planting info (commonly recommend evergreens on winter wind side of house)
Take a look at SE USA natives.
sample searches to try.
native botanic org Alabama
native plant society org Alabama
native gardens tour Mobile Alabama
Georgia search results.
maybe interesting http://www.plantdelights.com/Georgia-Native-Plants-for-sale/Plants-native-to-Georgia/?view_all
Try Tennessee info if you're in north AL
(disclaimer. i did not visit most of those urls)