If you simply want to maximize the number of pounds of vegetables you harvest, plant any of zucchini (courgettes), celery, swiss chard, leeks, rutabagas. Those will yield the most pounds per square foot of planting area.
If you want to maximize the number of calories per square foot, plant any of jerusalem artichoke, lima beans (pole, not bush), beets (eat both greens and roots), burdock, garlic, leeks, parsnips, potatoes (white/Irish), potatoes (sweet), rutabaga (I think you call these swedes), salsify, shallots. Surprisingly (to me at least), leeks are far and away the champion for calories per square foot -- 132000 calories possible from a single 100 sq ft planting. This list ignores the fact that these vegetables have different lengths of time to maturity -- beets are much faster to harvest than parsnips or leeks, for example.
And really, how many leeks can you eat?
I would choose the vegetables that you like to eat the most. If you have limited time, you might consider avoiding fussy crops like tomatoes, which can require a lot of care but don't provide much output. On the other hand, hilling potatoes requires labor but they can produce a lot of output.
As far as plants that will likely yield well without a lot of care, consider the squash family. Zucchini (courgettes) and most winter squash will give you as much food as you care to eat without tons of work -- assuming you have fertile soil. We got so much zucchini out of just a couple of hills last summer that we ended up making several jars of pickles, shredding some to put in the freezer, and making several breads. And I think all of the pumpkins that volunteered out of the compost pile gave my wife nightmares about how we were going to process them all, and what we're going to make with them.
Quick crops that don't require too much work would include lettuce, mustards, and chard. You can sometimes find all three combined in a packet of "mesclun mix". (Not sure if there's a different name for this in the UK.) Sow them rather thickly (0.5" - 1" or so; much closer than the 8-12" spacing that a packet of a single lettuce variety will recommend for heads) and cut them at baby size (3-4" high) for mixed salads.
Lastly, I like chard for greens all summer long. An 3'x4' bed will give you plenty. Start them in the spring, planting more thickly than the packet suggests (every 1" or so). Thin them at baby size to have in salads. As they get bigger, you can cut stems from the outside of the plant and it will continue to grow new leaves. If they start to get too thick (because you didn't thin enough -- I never do), chop off a whole plant. They're good in stir fries and soups. When I have too many to use at once I'll put a whole pile of leaves into a freezer bag for use in soups during the winter.
As far as time savings goes: keep up on the weeding. It's much easier and faster to walk around with the scuffle hoe for an hour once or twice a week and chop off all the little weeds than it is to hand-weed for several hours when the weeds get out of control.