Preliminary reading suggests that the only way is to rake up the fallen leaves and get rid of them. Will this do the trick?
Is there a way I could keep the leaves for compost without propagating the tar spot fungus to next year?
This site describes the tar spot. It does not harm the tree but is unsightly. The causal agent, a fungus, overwinters on the leaves. If your neighbours have maple trees and don't follow rigorous cleanup chances are good cleanup work on your part will not reduce the chance of infection.
That being said it's hard to provide uniform temperature for an extended period of time with a homeowner composting set up. I wouldn't take the chance that your compost will provide the right temperatures.